Although DNS rebinding attacks have been known for over a decade now, they are only recently receiving attention as a practical attack surface.
In the last year, quite a few popular products have been shown to lack DNS rebinding protections, and as a result, someone could operate them remotely using a malicious web site. Manufacturers have made a habit of giving consumers connected devices that are controlled by unauthenticated HTTP requests via the local network.
This mentality, that the private LAN is trusted, is undermined by the impact of DNS rebinding. It also turns out that vulnerabilities within HTTP-based applications can be unexpectedly exploited across network boundaries. For example, the recent ES File Explorer ‘Open Port Vuln’ was generally reported as only being exploitable by an attacker on the same WiFi network as the victim. This was in fact an understatement of the risk since the vulnerable HTTP server cannot differentiate between legit and relayed requests.
Last year, I created an integrated DNS/HTTP server designed to facilitate DNS rebinding attacks which can be created on the fly with a simple UI. This software, called Dolos, has been used in Black Hat USA and SecTor training classes. Now, in coordination with my upcoming talk at Infosec EU
, I have released the source code on GitHub
Dolos simplifies the process of creating an exploit by empowering users with two modes of network discovery as well as automated target discovery and payload delivery.
Any discovered networks will be scanned for the expected port/path. For each discovered IP:port with the expected page, an IFRAME is added to the browser using a special URL including the IP:port for rebinding as well as the payload to send from a newly generated rebinding domain. Alternatively, users can use Dolos without the Wizard UI to craft content for CSRF or rebinding attacks with a high degree of flexibility.
Deploying your own Dolos infrastructure requires a Linux server that can receive connections on a public IP address. A publicly registered domain with an NS record pointing to the Dolos server is needed to perform DNS rebinding attacks. Remember to also open UDP/53 as well as whatever ports you wish to use for HTTP. (DNS rebinding attacks require running a server on the same port as the targeted server.)
To get started with Dolos, simply clone the source files out of GitHub, update the configuration and start the service. Refer to the README.md
for more details on deployment.
Once Dolos is running, you can connect to it by browsing to the web UI using a URL similar to the following:
This will bring you to a page similar to the following:
URL with arguments to specify a IP/port and what content to serve. The /rebind
request redirects to a newly created domain on the expected port.
The content served from this page will make periodic queries to the Detection Path
Using Dolos has enabled me to rapidly develop several proof-of-concept exploits including hijacking routers
, television sets
, smart outlets
, smart speakers
and even the Android ES File Explorer app
. Releasing Dolos is ultimately intended to draw more attention to the problem of DNS rebinding and encourage product vendors to implement fixes.
Dolos is also designed with red teams and penetration testers in mind to encourage network operators to enable DNS rebinding mitigations. To do this, simply fork the project and reskin rebind_ip_scanner.html
as needed to fit the scenario. Pull requests and issue reports are also encouraged.